All records have been meticulously cleaned.

In several cases not just once. That is the most important fact. Cleaning improves the signal and high frequency reproduction, and it diminishes needle wear.


Records are only partially played. Mostly the beginning of sides.
If the surface shows an irregularity, that section/area is also played and listened to.


In this respect it is important to know that phono cartridge and needle tip play a crucial role. Old mono records can best be played with a mono cartridge or with a stereo cartridge with a spherical tip like Denon DL-103 which is also great for modern pressings.


Some older vinyl pressings however can also benefit from a more slender tip. It also depends on the way the original plate was cut. And there the country of origin also plays a role. Modern records from the 1970s and 1980s do benefit of course from sophisticated needle tips.

If you have questions, don't hesitate to mail me.



FS = Factory Sealed. This grade is generally not in my system. Sealed records do not necessarily guarantee a MINT copy. Even if they were really sealed in the factory it is not a guarantee for a mint copy.


M = Mint (rarely offered).


NM = Near Mint means this record is close to New and it is a safe acquisition. But it has been played so it cannot be new!


M- = Mint Minus. The record is close to NM but can have a small pressing bubble, and / or a few extremely light sounding ticks that do not keep you from enjoying the record. More important is if the signal is good and not damaged showing some distortion.


Excellent = Used record with a few scuffs and/or longer more or less audible marks and even some surface noise. The important argument to buy is the music and/or the interpretation of the artists. This is the same as VG++ with some sellers.


VG+ = A record in this category may have a few light scratches and will have surface noise. The listing indicates the condition.


VG = The record has scratches and/or has surface noise. It is playable because there are no hangs and the groove is undistorted. Only for the diehard who really wants the record(s) and the cover(s), no matter what, but still can enjoy the somewhat distorted sound. This is an item if the artist(s), the performance and the specific recording or edition are important.


Audio&Music Bulletin - Rudolf A. Bruil, Editor -
1998-2014 by Rudolf A. Bruil and co-authors